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Posts Tagged ‘Luxury Tax’

NBA Salary Cap For 2015-16 Hits $70.0M, Luxury Tax At $84.7M

July 8th, 2015 3 comments
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On Thursday July 9 at 12:01 a.m. ET, the NBA’s 2015-16 season begins. That’s when the league’s salary cap, luxury tax threshold, maximum salaries and other figures all adjust to their new values; when free agents can be can signed; and when players can be traded.

Most NBA business ceases for the first several days of July as the league conducts its annual audit to determine its revenues from the previous season. With that figure in hand, the league huddles with the players association to project revenues for the coming season, and uses it to calculate the new cap, tax and related figures.

Revenues for the now-completed 2014-15 season came in at an all-time record $4.84 billion, up 7.0 percent from the previous year (the highest annual growth rate for the league over a full season in the last eleven years), smashing projections for the season issued last year at this time (off of which the salary cap was based) by a whopping $132 million!

On that basis, the league then projected revenues from sources other than national TV rights to increase by the standard 4.5 percent and added them to the revenues call for in the national TV rights deals (which were set when the deals were signed in 2007), which came to a total of $5.04 billion.

To get the salary cap for the season ahead, the league takes 44.74 percent of that projected revenue amount, subtracts projected benefits, and divides by 30 (the number of teams in the league). The luxury tax uses a similar formula, but is based on 53.51 percent of projected revenues. Adjustments are then made to the cap if players received either too little or too much in salaries and benefits for the just completed season relative to the finalized revenue figure.

The players are contractually guaranteed to receive an exactly 50 percent share of initial revenue forecasts that were determined when the CBA was originally negotiated in 2011, plus or minus 60.5 percent of the amount by which actual revenues exceed or fall short of the forecasts, with a lower limit of 49 percent of actual revenues and an upper limit of 51 percent of actual revenues.

To ensure players do not receive more than their fair share of league-wide revenues, 10 percent of players’ salaries is withheld from their paychecks and deposited into an escrow account. At the end of each season, the players’ guaranteed share of revenues is compared to the amount they were actually paid in salaries and benefits. If the players received more than their fair share of revenues, then the overage is returned to the teams from the escrow account. The players then receive any escrow money that remains. To help ensure such an overage does not happen again, if there is an overage and the system is getting close to exceeding what the league can get back through the escrow system, then the following season’s salary cap (and tax level) may be reduced in order to put on the brakes.

For the 2014-15 season, $218.6 million was deposited into the escrow account.

If the players received less than their fair share of revenues throughout the season in the form of salaries and benefits, the league returns the full amount of the escrow and simply cuts the players a check for the difference. To help ensure such an underpayment does not happen again, the league increases the following season’s salary cap and tax level equal to the amount of the shortfall divided by the 30 teams in the league. The artificially inflated salary cap promotes higher spending on player salaries, and thus decreases the likelihood of a shortfall in the following season.

The system is designed such that the salary cap for each team is set at 44.74 percent of revenues, but the players are actually entitled to receive between 49 and 51 percent of revenues (the exact percentage is tied to the league’s financial performance).

In the past, this has never really been a problem. The NBA has a soft salary cap. Almost every team in the league used to exceed the salary cap by a large enough amount every season – many even exceed the luxury tax – that the players always wound up receiving their fair share of revenues. Typically, in fact, the players wound up getting far more than to which they were entitled, and the league’s escrow system would knock them back down.

Lately, however, it has become a far more significant problem. Punitive new cap rules — hard caps, increasing luxury tax consequences, etc. — coupled with more destructive roster construction models have caused teams to dramatically ratchet down their spending. For the first time ever, two teams failed to reach the league-wide minimum team salary requirement this past season. Eight teams ended the season below the salary cap (excluding cap holds). On the high end, a recording-tying low of five teams were taxpayers this year by a cumulative record-breaking low of just $26 million.

With league-wide revenues of $4.84 billion for the 2014-15 season, $180 million higher than the $4.66 billion originally forecasted when the CBA was negotiated, players were entitled to 50.39 percent of revenues, or $2.44 billion, in salaries and benefits. Throughout the season, they received just $2.38 billion, a $57.3 million shortfall.

The league will therefore return to the players the full $218.6 million from the escrow account, and cut a check for the additional $57.3 million shortfall. It will mark the largest shortfall check sent to players in league history.

The shortfall, in turn, caused an increase to the salary cap for the 2015-16 season of $1.9 million.

To arrive at its salary cap and luxury tax figures, the league took its $5.04 billion revenue projection, multiplied it by 44.74 percent and 53.51 percent respectively, subtracted projected benefits, and divided the result by 30. It then added the $1.9 million adjustment to the final tallies. On that basis, the new salary cap and tax thresholds were set.

The new salary cap has been set at $70.00 million, an 11.0 percent increase from last season. That is substantially larger than the $66.3 million initial projection from last year at this time (which contained no salary-related adjustment) and the $67.1 million project issued last April (which contained a $500K salary-related adjustment).

The new luxury tax line been set at $84.74 million, a 10.3 percent increase from last season. That is substantially larger than the $80.7 million initial projection from last year at this time (which contained no salary-related adjustment) and the $81.6 million projection issued last April (which contained a $500K salary-related adjustment).  Read more…

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NBA Issues Updated Salary Cap Guidance to Teams

April 17th, 2015 No comments
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I have a request. I write primarily for myself. I don’t do it for recognition. I don’t get compensated for it. It feels rather awful to see my work being exploited for the personal gain of others. If you would like to leverage it, I ask that you please properly source it (or, at the very least, donate).

At the Board of Governors meetings in New York, NBA teams were advised that the league expects the salary cap to increase from its current $63.1 million figure to $67.1 million next season and $89 million in 2016-17, while the luxury tax is expected to increase from its current $76.8 million figure to $81.6 million next season and $108 million in 2016-17.

The figures are non-binding forecasts that have been circulated several months before the official salary cap and luxury tax threshold for the 2015-16 season are announced on July 8 following a league-wide audit (that is what July Moratorium is for).

As part of the audit, accountants jointly appointed by the NBA and the players’ association will finalize the total revenue haul for the past season and, on that basis, project the revenues for the year ahead.

They will then take 44.74 percent of that projected amount, subtract projected benefits, and divide by 30 (the number of teams in the league) to get the salary cap for the season ahead. Adjustments are then made to the cap if players received way too much, or too little, in salaries and benefits for the then prior season relative to the finalized revenue figure; this serves as a mechanism to maintain the integrity of the agreed-to revenue spit between owners and players. The luxury tax uses a similar formula, but is based on 53.51 percent of projected revenues.

The latest projections suggest that the revenue haul for this season is expected to be much stronger than originally forecasted.

The league initially forecasted revenues for the 2014-15 NBA season of $4.66 billion when the current collective bargaining agreement was drafted back in 2011. The forecast was revised upward to $4.71 billion last July, off of which projection the salary cap was based. Today’s announcement suggests the league is now expecting that when they are finalized in July, revenues will come in at approximately $4.76 billion.  Read more…

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NBA Sets Salary Cap and Tax Level Numbers for 2014-15

July 9th, 2014 No comments
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On Thursday July 10 at 12:01 a.m. ET, the NBA’s 2014-15 season begins. That’s when the league’s salary cap, luxury tax threshold, maximum salaries and other figures all adjust to their new values.

Most NBA business ceases for the first several days of July as the league conducts its annual audit to determine the league’s revenues from the previous season. With that figure in hand, the league huddles with the players association to project revenues for the coming season, and uses it to calculate the new cap, tax and related figures.

Revenues on the season came in at an all-time high $4.52 billion, up 5.3% from the previous year and more than $50 million higher than initially projected. On that basis, the league then projected revenues for next season to increase another 4%, to $4.71 billion.

To get the salary cap for the season ahead, they took 44.74% of that projected amount, subtracted projected benefits, and divided by 30 (the number of teams in the league). Adjustments are then made to the cap if players received too much (or too little) in salaries and benefits for the completed season relative to the finalized revenue figure; this serves as a mechanism to maintain the integrity of the agreed-to revenue spit between owners and players. The luxury tax uses a similar formula, but is based on 53.51% of projected revenues.

The finalized figures were announced at 5 p.m. Wednesday in a memo distributed by the league to all member teams.

The new salary cap has been set at $63.065 million, a 7.5% increase from last season. That is slightly less than the $63.2 million estimate teams had been using since April, but higher than previous forecasts. Last year at this time, the league initially forecasted a cap of $62.5 million, before increasing it to $62.9 million in November and again in April.

The new luxury tax line will be $76.829 million, a 7.1% increase from last season. Tax projections started at $76.1 million last year at this time, before rising to $76.6 million in November and $77.0 million in AprilRead more…

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League-Wide Spending is Down, Keeping Luxury Tax Projection Up

October 27th, 2013 No comments
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Those among us who have been biding our time until the start of the 2013-14 NBA season by creating hypothetical machinations whereby the Miami Heat maintains and extends its current dominance into the 2014-15 season and beyond are quietly getting some good news.

League-wide spending is down.

Which means salary cap and luxury tax projections for next season are staying up.

The league is currently projecting a 2014-15 salary cap of $62.5 million and a tax level of $76.1 million. Pending league-wide revenue performance during the course of the season, these projections seem fairly safe for now.

The cap and tax levels are set by calculations based on projected amounts for revenue (termed BRI) and benefits for the upcoming season. The projected BRI is negotiated by the league and players’ association. Each year the sides meet to agree on an amount. Barring any adjustments that are necessitated, they typically use the projected revenues from national broadcast rights (which is determined in advance), plus the BRI for the previous season (other than national broadcast rights) increased by 4.5%.

The salary cap calculation takes 44.74% (53.51% for the tax level) of the league’s projected BRI, subtracts projected benefits and then divides the total by the number of teams in the league. Adjustments are then made if total salaries and benefits paid to the players in the season prior were significantly higher or lower, as a percentage of league-wide revenues, than was agreed in the CBA.

The current 2014-15 projections assume a 4.5% increase in revenues. They are based on an estimated $4.672 billion of projected BRI and $217 million in projected benefits (including $47 million of benefits, or 1% of BRI, to be allocated to the player benefits pool). They assume no salary-related adjustments.

The rest is basic math. Simply multiply the projected BRI by the respective percentages for the cap and tax threshold, subtract projected benefits, and divide the difference by 30. That’s it. Read more…

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NBA Sets Salary Cap and Tax Level Numbers for 2013-14

July 9th, 2013 No comments
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The NBA today announced that the salary cap for the 2013-14 season will be $58.679 million.

The tax level for the 2013-14 season has been set at $71.748 million. Any team whose team salary exceeds $71.748 million will, for the first time ever, pay an incremental tax rate based on how far it exceeds this level. The tax rate is $1.50-per-dollar for the first $5 million over, rising to $1.75-per-dollar between $5 million and $10 million over, rising to $2.50 between $10 million and $15 million over, rising to $3.25 between $15 million and $20 million over, and rising a further $0.50 for every $5 million increment after that.

The new cap and tax level go into effect at 12:01 a.m. ET on Wednesday, July 10, when the league’s moratorium period ends and teams can begin signing free agents and making trades.

The amounts are considerably lower than initial projections provided last year at this time, but fall roughly in line with the latest estimates provided in early June. The league had initially forecasted a cap and tax of $60 million and $73 million, respectively, before revising downward to $58.5 million and $71.6 million, respectively.

The cap and tax levels are set by calculations based on projected amounts for Basketball Related Income (BRI) and benefits for the upcoming season. The projected BRI is negotiated by the league and players’ association. Each year the sides meet to agree on an amount.

The salary cap calculation takes 44.74% (53.51% for the tax level) of the league’s projected BRI, subtracts projected benefits and then divides the total by the number of teams in the league. Adjustments are then made if total salaries and benefits paid to the players in the season prior were significantly higher or lower, as a percentage of league-wide revenues, than was agreed in the CBA.

The math that underlies the finalized figures suggests that the league is now projecting BRI of $4.471 billion for 2013-14, a 4% growth over its all-time high revenues from last season. Those came in at $4.293 billion, a whopping 12% growth over 2010-11, the last full NBA season, but roughly $15 million short of initial forecasts.

Despite the slight revenue miss, the NBA is clearly a strong and expanding entity.  Read more…

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A Look at the Finances Behind the Miami Heat’s Success

June 25th, 2013 4 comments
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Micky Arison was one of five NBA owners who voted against the current Collective Bargaining Agreement back in December of 2011. It was mostly a symbolic move – he knew the agreement would pass either way. But the point he was making was clear: the harshest elements of the new contract, the more penal luxury tax system and the new revenue sharing model, were clearly aimed directly at his Miami Heat.

The lockout having ended, the season was spared and the Heat went on to win its first, and now its second, championship of the Big Three era. Heat fans have thus far been spoiled by Arison’s willingness to spend his way into ensuring the future is bright in Miami. But could the day of reckoning the league had envisioned for the Heat soon be upon us?

Player salaries, when combined with luxury tax obligations, can get quite expensive for a title contender such as the Heat. Revenue sharing obligations only increase that financial burden.

So the question becomes: How profitable is the Heat organization?

First, some background.

Micky Arison is a multi-billionaire.

He is the son of Ted Arison, co-founder of Carnival in 1972. He became Chairman and CEO of Carnival in 1979. He announced his intention to step down as CEO earlier today, retaining his role as Chairman, but he nonetheless owns 111 million shares of the company, currently valued at a whopping $3.9 billion!

He is the majority owner of the Miami Heat, having purchased the team from his father and two other men, Billy Cunningham and Lewis Schaffel, for $68 million in 1995, who themselves paid out $32.5 million in expansion fees in 1988 to bring the team to Miami.  Read more…

Revised Luxury Tax Projections Come in Below Expectations

June 2nd, 2013 No comments
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The NBA’s salary cap and luxury tax threshold aren’t expected to rise as much as the league initially projected, a development that could have significant implications for the Miami Heat.

Estimates that were provided by the league to NBA teams on May 31 have the salary cap rising to just $58.5 million and the tax threshold to just $71.6 million for the 2013-14 season, both slight increases from the current levels but considerably lower than what had been projected. The league had previously guided to $60 million and $73 million, respectively, at the beginning of the season. The numbers will be finalized only after the NBA does a full season audit during the first week in July.

The revised projections suggest that revenues for the 2012-13 season are falling short of expectations and, as a result, player salaries are correspondingly too high, triggering escrow adjustments to the following season’s salary cap and tax threshold.  Read more…

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NBA Luxury Tax Projections For Next Season

March 11th, 2013 No comments
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There has been widespread speculation in NBA circles over the past year or so about the fate of the Miami Heat for next season and beyond. Articles that emphatically declare the inevitable financially-motivated implosion of Pat Riley’s brainchild have run rampant all across the internet universe.

The cost of doing business in the NBA has increased dramatically under the provisions of the new Collective Bargaining Agreement. The new rules are designed specifically to financially cripple high-spending teams like the Heat, in an attempt to promote competitive balance among all of the league’s 30 teams.

It’s working. Miami’s costs are soaring. But while predictions that call for the Big Three to be broken up to alleviate the hemorrhaging in the years to come are wildly premature and not very likely if things continue to run smoothly on the court, just how much Arison may be willing to spend to surround them depends largely on future luxury tax thresholds.  Read more…

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